Technical Articles

Static Electricity : The Industry's Hidden Hazard

Yusuf Mert SÖNMEZ  Chemical Engineer Msc

Static electricity is defined as the disproportion of electrical charges in or on a surface. The load remains unchanged until it begins to move away by the electrical current or the electrical discharge. Static electricity is called the exact opposite of the electric current flowing and transferring energy through electrical wires or other conductors.


Keywords: Static electricity, Combustible vapor mixtures, Spark propellant, Electrostatic discharge mechanisms, Electrostatic charge formation.

Control of Flammable / Explosive Environments and Crisis Management in Industrial Plants

Yusuf Mert SÖNMEZ  Chemical Engineer Msc
Mehmet DİLAVER        Chemical Engineer, TÜV Functional Safety Engineer
Çağatay KAYA               Chemical Engineer

In our country’s industry, fire and explosions occur almost every day and many lives and property are lost. In Kocaeli, which contains 27% of the chemical industry of our country, when the fire brigade statistics of 2016 were examined, a total of 790 fire cases were intervened. 140 of these fires occurred in industrial establishments. Organizations that store flammable / flammable chemicals in various ways must be aware and prepared for the danger of flammable and explosive atmospheres.


Keywords: Industrial fires, fire and explosion index, modeling, thermal radiation and pressure effect, zero-minute plan, crisis management

Effect of Time Estimation and Evaluation Team on Project Budget in Process Hazard Analysis

Mehmet DİLAVER  Chemical Engineer, TÜV Functional Safety Engineer

Process hazard analyzes are applied in many stages such as R & D, design, revision, commissioning and deactivation. The analysis tool used helps to mature the project in terms of danger and operability. The correct selection of the vehicle to be used ensures that the expectations are met without starting. Furthermore, if the time foreseen for the process hazard analysis is close to the actual one, it will mean that both the budget allocated for the analysis and the time plan do not deviate.


Keywords: Process Hazard Analysis, HAZOP Studies, Project Plan, Project Budget, Time Plan for Hazard Analysis

Dust Explosions

Çağatay KAYA                 Chemical Engineer

In our country and in the world, a wide range of powder materials from wood industry to metal industry are handled or formed due to process conditions. Powder material used or released within the enterprise may cause a severe explosion if the necessary precautions are not taken and may result in the loss of employees’ lives and material losses. Flammable powders are generally defined as flammable solid particles of 420 420m (U.S. No. 40, material passing through a 40 mesh standard sieve) or smaller. However, in order to comply with the IEC 60079-10-2 standard in force in our country, 500 µm is evaluated as a size criteria (material passing through U.S. No. 35, 35 mesh standard sieve).


Keywords: Dust explosions, ATEX, Explosive parameters, Primary explosion, Secondary explosion, Ignition sources

Safety Integrity Levels of Fire and Gas Systems and Effects on Facility Reliability Target

Mehmet DİLAVER       Chemical Engineer, TÜV Functional Safety Engineer

According to the research conducted by Marsh and McLennan Companies, the damage caused by fire and explosions in 100 accidents that caused the biggest destruction between 1974-2015 is more than 25.5 Billion Dollars. There should be systems for limiting the population and the environment that will be affected by accidents, such as gas detection, fire prevention and fire protection, early response to major accidents, loss of resources, and the population that will be affected by accidents. This paper addresses the end-users of the IEC 61508 Functional Safety / Electrical / Electronic / Programmable Electronic Safety-related Systems for the manufacturers of gas detection, fire prevention systems and equipment used in fire protection systems.


Keywords: Fire prevention systems, fire protection systems, gas detectors, functional safety, reliability, safety instrument design

Quantification of Uncertainties in Process Hazard Analysis by Fuzzy Logic

Oğuzcan TAŞDEMİR    Chemical Engineer
Yusuf Mert SÖNMEZ  Chemical Engineer Msc
Mehmet DİLAVER       Chemical Engineer, TÜV Functional Safety Engineer

Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) and similar studies have aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties due to their nature designed in the qualitative hazard analysis principle. These uncertainties directly affect the quality of the study and the variability of analyst experience and interpretations in the hazard analysis. In these studies, the linguistic effect on the accuracy and accuracy of the data obtained during the identification of the frequency or severity of the hazards is important to the extent that it will affect the quality of the study.


Keywords: Process hazard analysis, HAZOP, Fuzzy logic, fuzzy logic, modeling, aleatoric and epistemic data, linguistic effect